Nota Penting Saya
menentukan harga barang
Wednesday, May 13, 2009
Posted on 12:19:28 AM | 2 Comments
saya bukan kelulusan bidang perniagaan. tapi sebelum saya berani berjual-beli, saya perlu tahu juga, walaupun saya tak jadikan ini sumber pendapatan saya yang utama buat masa ini. tapi untuk jangka masa panjang, siapa tahu, kan? lagipun, perasaan orang lain kena difikirkan juga, kan?
sebagai permulaan, saya tanya pakcik google, menentukan harga barang. tak banyak artikel bahasa melayu (err tipu. sebenarnya saya tak jumpa). yang ada dalam bahasa indonesia. yang bahasa melayu, cuma bercerita tentang harga minyak yang naik (atau bagaimana cara-cara menjadi jutawan segera).
mungkin orang melayu sekarang lebih gemar berbahasa inggeris sahaja. jadi saya tanyakan lagi pakcik google, how to price your product. ya, berduyun tiba. tapi ini yang paling senang dibaca dan mudah difaham.
saya juga ada buku yang sangat bosan untuk dibaca, tapi perlu juga dibaca. tajuknya, How to Start a Home-Based Craft Business, 5th (Home-Based Business Series). bunyinya macam beriya-iya, tapi hasilnya tak lah seberapa pun. tak apa. pada saya tak rugi menuntut ilmu (padahal tak khatam-khatam pun buku tu saya baca. percayalah, sangat sesuai untuk dibawa tidur)
nota kaki: atau orang melayu memang dilahirkan untuk menjadi peniaga berjaya tanpa perlu belajar apa-apa, tanpa perlu ada ilmu?
update: ok, saya jumpa, satu di sini, bagus juga walaupun tak menyeluruh, tapi tetap ada bau-bau harga minyak yang naik dulu. (kalau harga minyak tak naik, ada tak artikel ni agaknya)
How To Price Your Crafts
Kisah Saya, Nota Penting Saya | 2 Comments
Friday, February 27, 2009
Posted on 6:27:24 PM | 11 Comments
Deciding how much to charge for your crafts is an important decision. While ultimately you must decide what your products are worth, there are a few steps to follow that can help.
Time Required: 30 minutes to several hours
- Decide how much you (or your employee) will be paid per hour to produce products.
- Multiply this hourly rate by the number of hours a week that will be spent producing crafts.
- Write down this figure, this is your weekly cost of labor. (If you need to make $10 per hour, working 40 hours per week the weekly cost of labor would be $400.)
- Calculate the total cost-of-supplies needed to make one finished product.
- Determine how many products one person can produce in a week.
- Multiply the cost of supplies-per-piece by the number of products produced in a week. (If your cost of materials per piece is $1 and you can produce 100 products a week, the figure would be $100.)
- Add this figure to your weekly labor costs. (In our example here that would be $400 + $100 = $500)
- Divide this figure by the number of products produced in a week. (So $500 labor/materials divided by 100 finished products a week would be $5.00 per piece.)
- If you will be wholesaling your products, multiply this number by two. (Which would give you a retail price of $10 per product.)
- Compare this cost to similar products on the market.
- If your price is more than similar products, you may need to reduce it by cutting hourly price, finding less expensive supplies or by increasing your production time.
- If your price is significantly less than similar products, you may want to consider raising your price.
- Usually one piece will not use an entire supply unit. For instance an 8-ounce bottle of glue may make a hundred pieces. In this case, calculate how many pieces can be produced from a supply and divide by the cost of the supply.
- This equation does not take into account any expenses other than labor and materials. You can figure in weekly costs of any other business expenses that you may have and add it to the weekly labor and material cost.
10 Mistakes to Avoid Selling Crafts
Nota Penting Saya | 11 Comments
Friday, February 27, 2009
Posted on 3:13:45 PM | 4 Comments
saya bukanlah serius sangat & bercita-cita tinggi sangat. tapi sapa tau masa depan kita kan..
& yang penting, ini kita dapat kongsi bersama..
10 Mistakes to Avoid Selling Crafts
1. Underpricing Work
Too many crafters price their work too low. Remember, you should not only make sure your pricing includes your materials, but also needs to compensate you for your marketing (show fees, traveling expenses, etc.) and your labor.
2. Not Having a Plan
No, you do not need to hire a high-priced business planning firm to make a business plan, but you do need to have a well-thought yearly plan for your business. What shows will you attend and when? How much should you spend on supplies every month? Thinking these things through and writing all this down will help you stay on track and keep you from taking on too many obligations for the year.
3. Starting Too Big
Lots of beginners will go out and borrow thousands of dollars to start their crafting career. Buying the best equipment might seem like a good investment at first, but when lean times come those payments can break the financial back of small business owners in a hurry. Likewise, you should not start out with all the top-rated shows. Local craft shows are a great way to get your feet wet in the business without investing thousands in show fees.
4. Attending the Wrong Shows
This is a problem that many people selling fine crafts and artwork discover when they attend their first street festival. If people are paying $5.00 for hot dogs, you would think they would not complain about the price of your high-end crafts. Wrong! Fine crafts and artwork belong at shows where customers appreciate the work involved. Not at the "Texas Chili Jamboree!"
5. Not Budgeting
Nobody likes to make a budget; therefore many people simply do not. A budget is not some elaborate financial statement that takes days to write. It's just a way for you to tell your money what to do instead of your money telling you what to do! Plan your next month's budget for your business at the end of each month. Start with minimum expenses at the top (things you must have to function like show fees that are due, and the utility bills on your workshop) and work your way down the list to things you would like to do, should you make enough money (like having those brand new custom fliers printed).
6. Not Planning for Lean Times
When planning your budget make sure you allow for savings. That fantastic show in DC may not pay out like it did in years past. If you have funds available for emergencies, you will be able to weather the months when you do not make enough to meet expenses. A good rule-of-thumbs is to have 3-6 months of operating expenses in savings. Yes, for some businesses this may be a substantial amount. But trust me, if you break your arm and cannot produce products for a while, this type of savings will literally save your business.
7. Taking Negative Comments Personally
I've seen too many first-time exhibitors almost in tears because of a rude comment from someone browsing their booth. "I can get a gift like that at Wal-Mart for half the price!" or "I'll just make it myself." are two comments you can count on hearing at almost every event. Unfortunately there are obnoxious people in the world and a lot of them seem to find craft shows the place to practice their skills of offending people. Don't listen to them! If they had the creativity, the skill and the dedication, they would be at home making their own crafts instead of bothering you! While you should always listen to constructive criticism like: "You should consider making this in blue.", there is no need in beating yourself up because of comments from someone who has nothing else to do than harass crafters who are confined to their booths.
8. Following Trends
Just because that booth next to you in New Jersey was selling floppy-eared bunnies right and left does not mean you should start making truckloads of bunnies for your next show. Trends come and go. So do craft business owners who follow them. Yes, you should definitely create lines that may be trendy. If snowmen are "in" this holiday season, you may want to create some to compliment your other items. But you should never simply change your product lines altogether to follow the crowd.
9. No Tax Planning
One of the number one reasons for small business failure is poor tax planning. In order to stay in business, you must pay your taxes! Once your profit margin is higher, that takes planning. I recommend an accountant, but you can use QuickBooks or other tax software to do your own taxes. The main thing to remember is that when you make money, there will likely be taxes due. Make sure you have the funds available BEFORE April 15th. It's also a good idea to keep a separate checking account for your business. Keep any tax savings in this account for easy transfer from you to Uncle Sam.
10. Spending too much
Do you actually need that brand-new trailer to haul your display and inventory from show-to-show? Or will that old van you've been using work just as well? How about a used trailer? Used equipment does the same job and can be half the cost. That also goes for your canopy, cash register, computer and anything else you need to run your business. Remember, you are in business to make money, not spend it!
Asthma And Bronchiolitis
Nota Penting Saya | 4 Comments
Sunday, January 18, 2009
Posted on 11:30:00 PM | 0 Comments
The most common problems of the respiratory system are:
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes airways to tighten and narrow. Often triggered by irritants in the air such as cigarette smoke, asthma flares involve contraction and swelling of the muscles lining the tiny airways. The resulting narrowing of the airways prevents air from flowing properly, causing wheezing and difficulty breathing, sometimes to the point of being life-threatening. Management of asthma starts with an asthma management plan, which usually involves avoiding asthma triggers and sometimes taking medications.
Not to be confused with bronchitis, bronchiolitis is an inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest branches of the bronchial tree. Bronchiolitis affects mostly infants and young children, and can cause wheezing and serious difficulty breathing. It's usually caused by specific viruses in the wintertime, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
About Asthma Flare-Ups
Asthma is a chronic lung disease that causes airways to become inflamed, leading to symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. Anyone can have asthma, including infants and adolescents. The tendency to develop asthma is often inherited.
Many kids with asthma can breathe normally for weeks or months between flare-ups. When flare-ups do occur, they often seem to happen without warning. Actually, an asthma flare-up usually develops over time, involving a complicated process of increasing airway obstruction.
All children with asthma have airways that are inflamed, which means that they swell and produce lots of thick mucus. In addition, their airways are also overly sensitive, or hyperreactive, to certain asthma triggers.
When exposed to these triggers, the muscles surrounding the airways tend to tighten, which makes the already clogged airways even narrower. Things that trigger flare-ups differ from person to person. Some common triggers are exercise, allergies, viral infections, and smoke.
So an asthma flare-up is caused by three important changes in the airways:
- swelling of the lining of the airways
- excess mucus that results in congestion and mucus "plugs" that get caught in the narrowed airways
- bronchoconstriction, which refers to the tightening of the muscles surrounding the airways
Together, the swelling, excess mucus, and bronchoconstriction narrow the airways and make it difficult to move air through (like breathing through a straw). During an asthma flare-up, kids may experience coughing, wheezing (a breezy whistling sound in the chest when breathing), chest tightness, increased heart rate, sweating, and shortness of breath.
Bronchiolitis is a common illness of the respiratory tract caused by an infection that affects the tiny airways, called the bronchioles, that lead to the lungs. As these airways become inflamed, they swell and fill with mucus, making breathing difficult.
- most often affects infants and young children because their small airways can become blocked more easily than those of older kids or adults
- typically occurs during the first 2 years of life, with peak occurrence at about 3 to 6 months of age
- is more common in males, children who have not been breastfed, and those who live in crowded conditions
Day-care attendance and exposure to cigarette smoke also can increase the likelihood that an infant will develop bronchiolitis.
Although it's often a mild illness, some infants are at risk for a more severe disease that requires hospitalization. Conditions that increase the risk of severe bronchiolitis include prematurity, prior chronic heart or lung disease, and a weakened immune system due to illness or medications.
Kids who have had bronchiolitis may be more likely to develop asthma later in life, but it's unclear whether the illness causes or triggers asthma, or whether children who eventually develop asthma were simply more prone to developing bronchiolitis as infants. Studies are being done to clarify the relationship between bronchiolitis and the later development of asthma.
Bronchiolitis is usually caused by a viral infection, most commonly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). RSV infections are responsible for more than half of all cases of bronchiolitis and are most widespread in the winter and early spring. Other viruses associated with bronchiolitis include rhinovirus, influenza (flu), and human metapneumovirus.
The best way to prevent the spread of viruses that can cause bronchiolitis is frequent hand washing. It may help to keep infants away from others who have colds or coughs. Babies who are exposed to cigarette smoke are more likely to develop more severe bronchiolitis compared with those from smoke-free homes.
Therefore, it's important to avoid exposing children to cigarette smoke.
Nota Penting Saya, Anak-anak Kita | 0 Comments